"The decisive assaults upon mankind now proceed from
the drawing boards and the laboratory" - Alfred Doblin (1919)
The below (31) individuals laid the
foundation for nuclear physics in the early part of the 20th
century. Prior to World War II, it was common for many of these
individuals to collaborate on some of the most important discoveries of
the time. However, when Hitler rose to power in the early 30's,
many of those deemed "non-Aryan" made their way to America and played a prominent role in
the Manhattan Project. In retrospect, these early policies sowed
the "seeds of defeat" for Nazi Germany. Those names hi-lighted in GRAY worked on
the Manhattan Project.
Web Master's Note: The Hall of Fame Directory - II
contains a listing of 60 + Hall of Fame members who were directly or
indirectly involved in the Manhattan Project. Please
"click" on the button below to move to that directory.
Note 1: In the year 1920, there were three main
centers of atomic research: Ernest Rutherford's lab at Cambridge; Niels
Bohr's lab in Copenhagen; and, the Gottingen lab in Germany under the
tutelage of Max Born, James Franck, and David Hilbert.
Note 2: Each of these German scientists, as well as
Joliot-Curie of France, were on the ALSOS list. This was the Manhattan
Project's military intelligence effort to capture known, enemy nuclear
scientists in an attempt to learn how far Germany had progressed in
their efforts to develop a nuclear weapon.
Note 3: The discovery of "fission" is
generally attributed to Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann of Germany.
However, Lise Meitner, with the assistance of her nephew, Otto Frisch,
was actually the first to determine that fission had taken place (Otto
Frisch actually coined the term "fission"), but Otto Hahn,
Lise Meitner's long term and former collaborator, was the first to
publish his results.
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